Desert Messenger

July 6, 2011

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P��� 6 VOICES FROM THE PAST Excerpts from “In the Shadow of Saguaros” By Rosalee Oldham Wheeler Find In the Shadow of Saguaros at Readers Oasis Bookstore, Qtz. History of Arizona’s State Flag ~ part 2 (Previous story: “History of Arizona’s State Flag ~ and the many fl ags that has fl own over the state part 1”) Editor’s Note: Following is the sec- ond of three installments about the various fl ags that has fl own over what would become, on February 14, 1912, the State of Arizona since the Castilian fl ag of Spain was unfurled in 1536, right here in what was then known as New Spain. In 1821, after the fall of the Span- ish Empire in New Spain, the new fl ag that would fl y over Arizona was the Mexican fl ag. The fl ag’s green strip stood for independence, red for bloodshed during the revolution, with the white for purity of religion. Twenty-four years later Mexican- American relations deteriorated when the United States annexed the Mexican State of Texas on March 1, 1845. President James K. Polk de- clared war on May 11, 1846. That part of Mexico that comprised Arizona as we know it today, was still under the fl ag of Santa Anna’s Mexico. The lure of land and prom- ise had brought hundreds of fami- lies from many cities east of the Mississippi. The hardships were numerous, especially with the In- dians making daily raids capturing ���.D�����M��������.��� were over 1,300 miles away in the Southwestern desert between Tuc- son and Yuma. Mexican President Santa Anna already had his hands full trying to strengthen his country after the long war for independence from Spain. The next fl ag to be raised over Ari- Mexican Flag of 1821 supplies and livestock. Complaints from the settlers fell on deaf ears in Mexico City. After all, the settlers The 6 PILLARS OF CHARACTER ing children use this Pillar of Character, please sign and date. The student turning in the most coupons to Main St. Eatery by September 1, 2011 wins a prize. Please make copies. Additional coupons for other Pillars of Char- acter will be published in the Desert Messenger throughout the summer. COUPON FOR Fairness : Parents, community partners: when observ- Fairness: Play by the rules • Take turns and share • Be open- minded; listen to others • Don’t take advantage of others • Don’t blame others carelessly • Treat all people fairly Act of Responsibility performed: ______________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Child’s Name: ___________________________ Child’s Age: ________ Date________________ Signature_______________________________ zona was the fl ag of the United States of America that was carried into Ari- zona by the Mormon Battalion. In late December of 1846 U. S. Army Colonel Philip St. George Cooke and his battalion of Mormon volunteers m a r c h e d from the Rio Grande Riv- er in Texas to the Gila River in Ari- zona. They arrived at the Gila on New Year’s Day of 1847. In a show of strength to the Mexican President, Cooke’s troops hacked out a wagon road through the wil- derness that also reassured settler families that politicians in Washing- ton remembered their plight. The war with Mexico in the border states would be a short one. The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ended the Mexican-American War on February 28, 1848 and acknowl- edged the annexation of Texas. At a cost of $15 million, the United States acquired the land that eventually became the states of California, Ne- vada, Utah, most of Arizona, parts of Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexi- co. Later in 1854, for an additional $15 million, the Gadsden Purchase established the borders of Arizona J��� 6, 2011 and New Mexico as we know them today. For a brief time during the Civil War the Stars and Bars of the Con- federate States of America fl ew over Arizona when on August 1, 1861 around 300 mounted rifl emen from Texas commanded by CSA Lieuten- ant Colonel John R. Baylor took for- mal possession of the U. S. Territory of Arizona. On January 18, 1862 CSA Presi- United States Flag of 1847 learned that General Sibley had suf- fered a disastrous loss at the Battle of Glorieta Pass in the U. S. Territory of New Mexico. General Sibley recom- mended the CSA abandon the idea of a conquest and defense of Arizona and New Mexico as they were “not worth a quarter of the blood and treasure which had been expended.” The last of the CSA troops evacuated the region in early July of 1862. The Stars and Bars were lowered and in less than a year the Confederate Ter- ritory of Arizona ceased to exist.(The next issue of the Desert Messenger will have the third of three stories Rosalee Wheeler wrote about the various fl ags that have fl own over Arizona.) Alternative Therapies “SIZZLIN” SUMMER SPECIAL!! Refer 3 and You are FREE! * • Reiki • Hypnosis • Ear Candling with Barbara • Massage with Barbara or Lois • We do Hot Rock, Sweedish, or Deep Tissue massage • We also do massage and ear candling for dogs * MIX OR MATCH----Refer 3 people to Barbara, or 3 people to Lois, and YOUR treatment is FREE!!! 255 N. CENTRAL BLVD. PALM PLAZA #8, QUARTZSITE Barbara 928-927-5858 Lois 928-273-8348 dent Jefferson Davis decreed the establishment of the Confederate Territory of Arizona with Bay- lor as its Governor. Baylor immediately sent word to President Davis that he desper- ately needed reinforce- ments to fend off the advancing California Column, a Union bri- gade of 2,300 infantry and cavalry. Unfortu- nately the CSA had just

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